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How the stages involved in the waterfall methodology?


A Waterfall model passes through several individual phases, which amalgamate to result in the desired product. The stages are explained briefly with an example to better understand the core of the Waterfall model.

Assume that a renowned bank is planning to develop a new banking application in the 90’s. So the ideal approach to come up with an application is:


In this phase, the detailed requirements are gathered from the client, followed by defining the expectations and goals of the project and analyzing the risks. As the team goes through the requirements, the following list of questions are revealed by the involved project team, which were not mentioned in the requirements document:
1. How many countries will use this banking application?
2. Is there a need to support multiple languages?
3. The number of users expected to use this application, and so on


Identification of the goals of the project is followed by the designing phase of the product, which involves drawing the blueprint for the coders to meet the desired requirements.

In this case, the architect of the project works on designing the software architecture of the banking application. For instance, it is decided that the application is required to have redundant backup and fail-over capabilities so that the system is accessible all the time. Thus, the architect designs documents and architecture diagram for the same.


This phase is also known as development, coding, or implementation. In this stage, the development team works on writing the software for the project. They follow the design documents to ensure their solution follows the design as finalized by the architect.

Being a banking application, the highest priority is given to the security of the application. Thus, developers implement various security checks and audit logging features in the application.

Testing and Debugging

In this phase of the process, the software undergoes the stress-test and is combed over for errors to ensure that the final product meets the customer’s requirements.
If there is any defect in the application, developers fix the same and testing team tests the fixes to make sure the defect is fixed. They also perform regression testing of the application to see if any new defects were introduced.


After testing and debugging are complete, the code is deployed to a production environment as per the agreed-upon requirements. Another set of testing and verification often follows after implementation.
In the case of a banking application, the team builds and installs the application on the servers. Some of the high-level activities involve installing the OS on the servers, installing security patches, hardening the servers, installing web servers and application servers, installing the database, etc.

In this phase, the team also ensures that the application runs smoothly on the servers without any downtime.

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